Today in Basque History: Treaty of Briones, Conspiracy against Magellan, Governor of Chile, Durango is Bombed, Pact of Baiona

1379: Carlos II of Nafarroa, “the Bad,” is forced to sign the Treaty of Briones between Castilla and Nafarroa, in which Castilla is given several cities for 10 years and Carlos promises not to marry any of his children to English royalty.

1520: Magellan’s expedition reaches the San Julian river, on the coast of what is now Argentina. It is here that some of Magellan’s crew begins to conspire against him, and the Gipuzkoan Juan de Elorriaga, master of the ship Trinidad, is killed.

1656: Juan Andres de Ustariz is born in Narvarte, Nafarroa. In 1709, he becomes the governor of Chile.

1937-03-311937: Durango, Bizkaia, is bombed. This is the first systematic bombing of a civilian population during the Spanish Civil War. The bombing begins at 8:30 in the morning and lasts about 30 minutes. The bombing continues in the afternoon. It is estimated that 130 people died directly in the bombing and another 110 died as a consequence within a few days. Many survivors flee to Gernika, which is bombed about one month later. Otxandio, in the south of Bizkaia, and Elorrio are also bombed on this day.

1945: The pact of Baiona is signed, in which all of the political and labor organizations declare their support for the Basque Government, now in exile, and organize the Basque Advisory Council.

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