Today in Basque History: Goya, Temple of Reason, Euskal Erria in Montevideo, Creation of HAS

220px-Goya_selfportrait1746: Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes is born in Fuendetodos, Aragón. His grandparents were from Zerain, Gipuzkoa.  Goya goes on to be one of the most important romantic painters.  Besides being named First Court Painter by Charles IV, Goya chronicled the Peninsular War through his art in the series The Disasters of War.  After becoming deaf in 1792 after a sickness, his paintings take on a much darker atmosphere.  In particular, his Caprichos depicts “the innumerable foibles and follies to be found in any civilized society, and from the common prejudices and deceitful practices which custom, ignorance, or self-interest have made usual.”

1794: It is decreed that the church in Aroue, Zuberoa, be taken and that a Temple to Reason be established there. The silverware and cloth of the church is to be confiscated and sent to the district of Mauleon.

1912: The Centro Vasco Euskal Erria is founded in Montevideo, Uruguay. It was proceded by a circular entitled “Arriba Euskaros” and by the work of Euskaldunak Denak Bat, an organization founded in San Jose by Regino Galdos originally of Vallabona and Atanasio Zabala.

1974: The political party Herriko Alderdi Sozialista is founded. In 1975, it merged with Euskal Elderdi Sozialista, forming EHAS, and later HASI, a component, in 1979, of Herri Batasuna. It is founded in Baiona by the more radical wing of Enbata, including Manex Pagola, Manex Goiheneche, J.L. Davant, and Battito Larzabal.

Today in Basque History: Athletic Bilbao, ETA Executive Arrested

1903: Bilbao’s two soccer teams, Bilbao F.C. and Athletic, merge to form Athletic Club. The presidents at the time are Luis Arana of Bilbao F.C. and Jose Astorquiza of Athletic. The two clubs had established a strong rivalry since the founding of Bilbao F.C. in late 1900. However, they did join to play abroad as one team, Bizcaya.

1992: The French police, acting on information provided by the Guardia Civil, captures of the full executive of ETA (the Artapalo collective). José Luis Alvarez Santacristina “Txelis”, Francisco Mugika Garmendia “Pakito”, and Jose Arregui Erostarbe “Fitipaldi” are caught in a hamlet in the French Basque town of Bidart while holding a meeting. For the first time in the history of ETA, the leadership all fell into the hands of police at the same time.

Today in Basque History: Architect of Gernika’s Fronton

1892: Castor Uriarte Aguirreamalloa, architect and author, is born in Catabuig, Philipines. In 1937 he witnessed the German bombardment of Gernika, during which the village fronton, which he had designed, was destroyed. He later tried to get Picasso’s Guernica moved to Gernika without success.

Today in Basque History: King of Nafarroa, Aberri Eguna, Bombing of Iparralde, Basque Music, Basque Guerrilla in Philipines

1225: William, viscount of Bearn, Gabarret, and Brulhois and lord of Moncada and Castelvieil, signs an agreement with the future Theobald I of Nafarroa, Count of Champagne, to ensure him the throne of Nafarroa on the death of his uncle, Sancho the Strong.

1932: The first Aberri Eguna, or Basque National Day, is celebrated in Bilbao, in conjunction with the gold anniversary of the PNV — Partido Nacionalista Vasco. It consists of various commemorative acts, of both folkloric and political character. There is no rally at this first Aberri Eguna, though a banquet was held in the Artxanda casino.

1944: The US Air Force, in Liberator aircraft, bomb Biarritz and Anglet, targeting the airport of Parma and the railway station. However, most of the victims are civilians: 90 dead in Biarritz and 41 in Anglet. This is the most tragic event of World War II in Iparralde.

1976: The iniciative 24 ordu euskeraz is celebrated in the Anoeta velodrome in San Sebastian. More than 10,000 people attend. It is organized by Herri Irratia with participation by the Artze brothers, Bedaxagar, Lete, Knörr, Laboa, Lertxundi, Lupe, Mendibil, Oskarbi or Peio and Pantxoa and the trikitixa of Sakabi and Egañazpi, among other activities.

1981-03-271981: Higinio Uriarte Zamacona, guerrilla captain of World War II and hero of the Philipine resistance against Japanese occupation, dies. His parents were from Bizkaia. The Japanese placed a bounty on him for 100,000 pesos, dead or alive. He fought with guerrillas in the mountains until he saw an American tank with the sign “Fighting Basques”, commanded by a soldier from Idaho, originally from Leiketio.

Today in Basque History: Bank of Vizcaya, Bolivar vs Nature

1901: The Bank of Vizcaya is founded, with a capital of 15,000,000 pesetas.

1812-03-261812: A devastating earthquake hits Caracas. Simon Bolivar, the Liberator, gives relief to victims and organizes a hospital. The indomitable genius of Bolivar is revealed against fatalism. An ecclesiastical harangues the people: the earthquake is a punishment from God, we must submit to the king. Bolivar draws his sword, passes through the crowd, pushes the speaker away, stands on a pile of rubble, and addresses the people: “Nature is allied with despotism, she wants to stop us. Worse for her, we will know how to force her to obey us!”

Today in Basque History: Treaty between Nafarroa and France

1371: The Treaty of Vernon, between Charles II of Nafarroa and Charles V of France, confirms the Treaty of Normandy of 1370, whereby the King of Nafarroa should pay homage to the King of France in exchange for the barony of Montpellier. Seven years later, in 1378, hostilities renewed when two Navarrese agents were captured with plans to poison the King of France.

Today in Basque History: Basque Poet Jailed, Boise Basque Icon

1943-03-241943: Pierre d’ Arcangues, Basque poet of Arrangoitze, is jailed by the German Gestapo.

1932: Mari Carmen Totoricaguena Egurrola Albizu, founder of Anaiak Danok and Biotzetik in Idaho, is born in Gernika. She also directed a chorus of Basque children for 20 years and organized the Aberri Eguna celebrations in Boise, Idaho. She immigrated to the United States in 1951.

Today in Basque History: Prince of Peru, Fashion

1561-03-231561: Lope de Aguirre, born in Onate, Gipuzkoa, and his men proclaim “Don Fernando, by the grace of God, prince of Peru, Tierra Firma and Chile,” intending to crown him king once they arrive in Peru. Fernando de Guzman is made general of the expedition — searching for Omagua and El Dorado — after Aguirre disposes of Pedro de Ursua, the original leader of the expedition.  The document in which this is proclaimed is referred to as the First Act of Independence of America.

According to Aunamendi, it was Fernando de Guzman who was proclaimed Prince of Peru, but a number of English language sites, including Wikipedia, state it was Aguirre himself who was proclaimed Prince.

1972-03-231972: Cristobal Balenciaga Eizagurrie, fashion designer born in Getaria, dies.  Balenciaga became world-reknowned after he is forced by the Spanish Civil War to move to Paris, where among other achievements, he totally transformed the silhouette, broadening the shoulders and removing the waist.

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